if a 2002 4x2 ford ranger was towed into a shop because the clutch failed is there anyway the #2 syncro or anyother internal part of the transmission could be damaged while the service department repalced the clutch?

I don’t see how. The trans is dropped as a unit to replace the clutch.

The synchro could have suffered some damage before the clutch was replaced if the clutch wasn’t completely disengaing when shifting. Perhaps the new clutch isn’t completely disengaging and that is overwhelming the synchro’s ability to match gear speeds when shifting.

More info and the rest of the story would get you helpful replys. As written with the info provided - no.