Help my trans please

i have a 1982 chevy 1500 4x4 with a 700R4 and it has never give me any problems at all has always shifted firm and smooth goes instantly in to drive and reverse. One day last week i got in and the truck will not shift in to second actualy wont come out of first the reverse still works fine and the first is still fine it does not slip or hesitate at all. i pulled the governer cover off and can spin it! I dont think i should be able to do that but i am not sure any advice would be greatly appricated thank yall and have a blessed day!

Drop the pan, clean it, replace the filter, refill with Dexron and add a bottle of Trans-X, Trans-Tune or Trans medic. Then, with the shift lever in the 1 position accelerate up to about 20 mph and move the lever to the 2 position and wait a few seconds for the shift. If nothing happens slow to <5mph, accelerate and repeat… MOre often than not (dozens of times) that procedure has worked for me.

Not sure about this. It seems like there may be something (other than the transmission), telling it not to shift, rather than something wrong with the transmission itself. This started, all of a sudden, one morning, after apparently being fine the day before. You know, like it’s been shoved into “limp” mode.

I would check the fluid before I did too much to it. make sure it’s a nice red color, doesn’t smell like it’s burnt, feel it, and make sure you don’t find grit, stuff like that. It just feels wrong - to me - to say it’s the transmission at this point. It’s surely manifesting itself in the tranny, but that doesn’t mean it is the tranny.

Then again, I don’t know a lot about 82 Chevy’s.

The 700R4 has no “limp mode.” It is internally controlled by hydraulic pressure based on manifold vacuum and throttle position via a throttle cable and RPMs. The only electric control is on the lock up clutch. If the vacuum modulator and throttle control are not functioning the governor should force an up shift. If there is an immediate and firm engagement of 1st gear but no upshift it can be assumed that there is adequate line pressure and failure in an hydraulic circuit.

Hopefully I haven’t miss spoke myself, transman.

Well, I did say I don’t know a lot about '82 Chevy’s…I only said it “felt” … not sure what. So if it’s controlled by a cable (I’m assuming you mean from the fuel system/carb, like in cars of old), maybe that cable has slipped of broken? It just sounds weird, that’s all.

Rod, I don’t doubt you know this trans, I certainly don’t. Just trying to think outside the box, I guess.

Is that an auto or manual transmission? 

Have you ever changed the transmission fluid?

Yes, the governor should not turn freely. It should be splined to the output shaft. You should be able to pull the governor valve out after removing the cover. If the gear is sufficiently stripped and the teeth deformed, it might be a chore to remesh the teeth and pull it past output shaft worm gear. There is a plastic gear on the end of the governor. As I remember that nylon gear is roll pinned to the governor shaft. If you can find and replace that gear you should be back in business.

Hope this helps.

It seems to me that if you can spin the governor shaft, it must be broken.

No, you should not be able to spin the governor. These gears break frequently. Pull the governor out and replace the gear. BE SURE to check the gear on the output shaft also. Make sure it is not spinning on the output shaft. If it is, you will need to pull the tail housing and replace it. While you have it out, turn it over and clean it real good with some spray carb cleaner. Focus in on the valve itself when cleaning, dip it into some fresh ATF and reinstall it into the trans.