Metallic chattering/click/tap with throttle

I’ve got a '09 Crown Vic (police) that’s got a sort of chattering/clicking noise. The noise is present at idle and while driving, but is especially evident when accelerating or using the throttle, and is metallic sounding. It seems (to me) to be coming from the front passenger footwell, but I can’t pinpoint it exactly. I think given the symptoms it’s bad/loose rocker arms, but I’m pretty new at this and could use some help diagnosing sounds. I’ve attached a link to a recording I’ve made of the sound (I hope). Any suggestions or contradictions would be a huge help. I bought this as a surplus police vehicle and unfortunately don’t have a repair history or a reason why it was taken out of service.

I can barely hear any ticking, but it sounds more like an exhaust leak. How many miles on this car?

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There’s about 133k on it and just over 8000 idling hours

I figured something like that… I’d even more strongly suggest it is an exhaust leak. Gasket or cracked manifold.