A missing dip stick will not cause a CEL. Nothing monitors the engine for the presence of the stick. And the bottom of the tube it goes into is submersed in the pool of oil in the crankcase.
It will not lead to a vacuum leak, the tube being immersed in the oil pool like it is.
The crankcase pressures also have zero to do with the ERG(?) (I assume you're thinking of the EGR, Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system.
The only problem a missing dip stick can cause is oil to get pushed out the stick if there's sufficient blowby (like on an older engine) and make a mess. I don't recommend driving without a dipstick, but your concerns are unfounded.
Skull, if you're dragging up years-old threads for lecture purposes, please don't. If you have a question you'd like answered, just ask in a new post. We'll be happy to explain anything.... sometimes in many different ways.