Your car is new enough and under 10000lbs GVWR, so assuming it’s a US-spec car, it does have some kind of TPMS
I’m assuming you think it doesn’t have TPMS, because you don’t see any sensors
That being said, you most likely have indirect TPMS. While individual tire pressures can’t be monitored, the system monitors the abs wheel speed sensors, to detect sudden and massive loss of pressure . . . in an individual tire. The reasoning is that an underinflated tire will have more rpms than a properly inflated tire. The system compares speed signals of the left front and right rear. And it does the same for the right front and left rear.
I just bought a 2014 Civic for my mom, and it has indirect TPMS. Some manufacturers recently began moving away from direct TPMS to indirect. Based on what you said, it seems Toyota is among them
The downfall of indirect tpms is that it can’t display individual tire pressures on the screen. And if all 4 of the tires are down 10psi, it won’t recognize that. But if 3 of them are at 32psi, and 1 is at 20psi, it will detect that, and notify you about underinflation
I personally think that indirect tpms is a mediocre system, but it apparently meets the legal requirements
And tire and/or rim replacements are easier, quicker, and cheaper, because regular valve stems can be used.
That’s the only advantage, as far as I’m concerned