Does this car have a front differential and a transfer case or are they different names for the same thing?
They’re two different things. You have a front differential, a center diff, and a rear diff. You don’t have what I would call a transfer case, which is on 4wd vehicles based off rwd trucks and SUVs, which usually includes the gearing needed for a low range. There is an extra set of gears in your transmission to take the power and send it to the rear axle.
The Highlander which is AWD has a trans-axle like a Camry.
Go to the interactive url below. It explains 4wd/awd systems pretty well.