On fuel: I did measure the pressure in the fuel rail with a pressure gauge. It is within the nominal range.
On Spark: I pulled the plugs. The spark is no good when the car is cranked cold, which I assume is the reason the vehicle won't start. However, if I disconnect the battery, wait an hour, and reconnect the battery, that symptom goes away and the vehicle starts on the first try. It then runs normally, and will continue to restart reliably without fail, so long as the block remains hot.
As a result, I know that the injectors and ignition system (plugs, coils, ICM, CkPS, etc.) work properly under the following conditions: 1. The block is hot, 2. The block is cold, but the battery has just been reconnected after a wait of at least one hour.
This leads me to think that the actual problem is with either the PCM or ICM, or a sensor (not the CkPS, however) that is causing the PCM or ICM not to provide the proper signals to run the engine (i.e. spark timing signals and injector firing signals). I would guess that the former has a volatile memory component that is reset once the local hold-up capacitor dips below the refresh voltage. Therefore, when the system is reconnected, the PCM runs through vehicle start-up from a different state than it would following a run and cooling cycle without a battery disconnection. Perhaps, one that does not poll a failed sensor. In and of itself, this does not mean that the PCM or ICM is the problem, rather more likely it's a sensor problem. But I really don't know where to look short of replacing the PCM or ICM. If there's a sensor that could be a likely culprit, I would prefer to try that first.
Is there any sensor that the PCM or ICM looks at when it determines whether the vehicle should be allowed to start, but would ignore on the very first start of the vehicle after the battery was disconnected for an extended period?