Axles should bolt to the transmission so lock pins should not be an issue.
Huh? I have never seen an axle that bolts to the transmission.
Since this is a failure at the outer CV joint, then the c-clip should not apply, unless the outer CV joint is replaceable on a VW. The C-clip that I was referring to would be the one that keeps the tripod on the shaft inside the inner CV joint.
Replacing the CV joint boots because they are worn or old is not really a bad idea. As long as there is uncontaminated grease inside the joint, it doesn’t wear out very fast. I think most could easily last the life of the vehicle, if the boot didn’t tear or get ripped. Since most boots are rubber, they will rot over time and end up with a tear in them, the grease gets contaminated and the joint now wears out very rapidly.
What bothers me here is why only the outer boots and not the inners. And, how did they replace the outer boots without removing the inner boots and CV joints first. The only way that that could be done is if the outer CV Joints can be removed and replaced. I have heard of these but have never seen one. Every axle I’ve ever worked on, the inner CV joint is removable, but the outer is not.
EDIT: I guess they could have used split boots, and one of those boots didn’t get sealed up properly and things went downhill from there. If the OP will check her invoice again for the labor cost, that would be a clue. If the labor was for an hour or less, then I’d suspect split boots.
If VW has an axle with a removable outer joint, then I’d suspect that it was not reinstalled correctly. Otherwise I can’t imagine how the axle could break at the outer joint. I could see the outer joint coming apart if it is a fork design like Toyota uses instead of the double offset design.
I can’t help it, I know that I am working with very limited information from the OP, but I still suspect that the problem is related to the work done at the dealership. If I had “eyes on”, I might have a completely different opinion.