There seems to be some misinformation about Road Force Balancing. It’s not balancing at all (except for the fact that part of the procedure dynamically balances the tire). The Road Force part is about uniformity (think out of round and you’ll be close).
And just to be clear, the Hunter Engineering GSP9700 and its successors are usually the machine we are talking about.
What happens is a load wheel applies a load against the tire and wheel assembly and the unit measures the amount of deflection and that gets translated into a force (actually the 1st harmonic of the composite force). The unit displays that number and will point out the location. Please note that this is an assembly value and location. The wheel and the tire each have separate values and locations and these combined to get the assembled value.
If the value is excessive (the unit has preset values which I disagree with!), a separation procedure can be followed to determine both the tire’s value and the wheel’s value - and the unit will recommend how best orient the tire relative to the wheel to best reduce that value.
Tire manufacturers have similar units - EXCEPT they are production speed (a tire a minute), they are more accurate (they can measure to within 2#), and they cost about a million bucks each. I worked in a factory that had over 30 of these units. It’s a sizable investment.
How about those dots?
First there are no industry standards or common practices. Not everyone marks their tires (or wheels) , and the marks don’t always mean the same thing.
The most common practice is to mark the high point of the radial first harmonic of force variation (Road Force) with a red dot. The wheel is usually marked by the valve hole for the low point of the first harmonic of runout (which for a wheel turns out to be the same as force variation)
Sometimes a yellow dot is used for the balance mark. I forget if it is high or low, but it doesn’t matter as the wheels are never marked. There’s no harm done matching the balance mark to the valve hole, but it’s not really doing anything (other than making the operator feel that he is doing his best!)
But let me state this again - there is no industry standard. Ford uses fluorescent green stickers. BMW uses white dots. Toyota uses red dots. Etc. Some tire manufacturers don’t mark their tires - some do. And wheels? I don’t know of anyone who marks wheels in the aftermarket - and OE wheels are marked according to the vehicle manufacturer’s specs, which vary.