Unfortunately, there is nothing you can do short of a total teardown to assess how much damage was done. It's virtually guaranteed that as a minimum you've shortened the engine's life. No engine can survive 10 miles on the highway without some damage to the bearings, crank, and the valvetrain (read: cam, lifters, etc.). Those unusual sounds you heard were metal grinding against metal.
Recovering for damages will be extremely difficult, as no evidence exists as to how shortened the life of the engine actually is. Perhaps a judgement could be obtained in a small claims court for the oil change company to pay for an extended and extensive warraty for you, but I won't kid you......this would be unusual.
Yes, you could have an oil analysis done to determine what bad stuff (such as metal particles) are suspended in your current oil, but tieing the result to the oil change will be difficult.
You could and should also talk with a lawyer and get a legal opinion. But since the car still runs and one shop has already said it's fine, you may have no case.
I'm truely sorry, but I have nothing positive to offer. Except to avoid that oil change place in the future and of the light ever again comes on pull over off the soft shoulder immediately. If you don't have AAA and a cell phone, now would be a good time to consider both.